According to mythology, the town was founded by Náfplios, the son of god Poseidon and the daughter of Danaus (Danaida) Anymone. The town’s history traces back to the prehistoric era when soldiers from here participated in the Argonautic expedition and the Trojan War alike. The town declined during the Roman times and flourished again during the Byzantine times. Frankish, Venetian and Turkish conquerors left their mark in the town and strongly influenced its culture, architecture and traditions during the centuries. Ancient walls, medieval castles, monuments and statues, Ottoman fountains and Venetian or neoclassical buildings mesmerize the visitor with their unique architecture and beauty.

In the 6th century BC, the city of Nafplion was captured by Damokratis, the king of Argos, as it allied with Sparta during the Second Messenian War. The next centuries were no active for the history of Nafplion, as it was overshadowed by the neighboring Argos. In the Medieval Times, Nafplion was occupied by the Venetians, who made it an important naval spot in the Peloponnese. The Venetians constructed the impressive Palamidi Fortress above the town to protect it from enemies anbd also built a castle in Bourtzi, a small islet at the entrance of the port. In the 16th century and after many sieges, the town was conquered by the Ottomans. Nafplion was among the first towns to be set free at the Greek War of 1821. It became the seat of the permanent Greek government until the end of the war and many war heroes and fighters moved to Nafplion, among which Theodoros Kolokotronis, Manto Mavrogenous and Dimitrios Ipsilantis. After the end of the war, it was in the port of Nafplion where the first governor of the Greek State arrived, Ioannis Kapodistrias, making the town the first capital of Greece. At the time of Kapodistrias, many public buildings were constructed, including the residence of the governor, also known as palataki. It was also in the church of Agios Spyridon in the Old Town of Nafplion that Kapodistrias as assassinated by his political opponents in September 27th, 1831.